FANDOM


Template:Infobox government agency

As a federal agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) receives its funding from the annual federal budget passed by the United States Congress. The following charts detail the amount of federal funding allotted to NASA each year over its past fifty-year history (1958–2009) to operate aeronautics research, unmanned and manned space exploration programs.

Annual budget, 1958-2015Edit

NASA-Budget-Federal

NASA's budget as percentage of federal total, from 1958 to 2012

Seen in the year-by-year breakdown listed below, the total amounts (in nominal dollars) that NASA has been budgeted from 1958 to 2011 amounts to $526.178 billion—an average of $9.928 billion per year. By way of comparison, total spending over this period by the National Science Foundation was roughly one-fifth of NASA's expenditures: $101.5 billion, or $2 billion a year.[1] NASA's FY 2011 budget of $18.4 billion represented about 0.5% of the $3.4 trillion United States federal budget during that year, or about 35% of total spending on academic scientific research in the United States.[2]

According to the Office of Management and Budget and the Air Force Almanac, when measured in real terms (adjusted for inflation), the figure is $790.0 billion, or an average of $15.818 billion per year over its fifty-year history.

History of NASA's annual budget (millions of US dollars)
Calendar
Year
NASA budget
Nominal Dollars
(Millions)
% of Fed Budget[3][4] 2014 Constant Dollars
(Millions)
1958890.1%732
19591450.2%1,185
1960 401 0.5% 3,222
19617440.9% 5,918
19621,2571.18% 9,900
19632,5522.29% 19,836
19644,1713.52% 32,002
19655,0924.31% 38,448
19665,9334.41%43,554
19675,4253.45% 38,633
19684,7222.65% 32,274
19694,2512.31% 27,550
1970 3,752 1.92% 23,000
19713,3821.61% 19,862
19723,4231.48% 19,477
19733,3121.35% 17,742
19743,2551.21% 15,704
19753,2690.98% 14,452
19763,6710.99% 15,345
19774,0020.98% 15,707
19784,1640.91% 15,190
19794,3800.87% 14,349
1980 4,959 0.84% 14,314
19815,5370.82%14,488
19826,1550.83%15,170
19836,8530.85%16,365
19847,0550.83%16,150
19857,2510.77%16,028
19867,4030.75%16,065
19877,5910.76%15,893
Calendar
Year
NASA budget
Nominal Dollars
(Millions)
% of Fed Budget[3][4] 2014 Constant Dollars
(Millions)
19889,0920.85%18,280
198911,0360.96%21,168
1990 12,429 0.99% 22,618
199113,8781.05%24,235
199213,9611.01%23,668
199314,3051.01%23,546
199413,6950.94%21,979
199513,3780.88%20,879
199613,8810.89%21,042
199714,3600.90%21,280
199814,1940.86%20,712
199913,6360.80%19,467
2000 13,428 0.75% 18,547
200114,0950.76%18,940
200214,4050.72%19,045
200314,6100.68%18,885
200415,1520.66%19,078
200515,6020.63%19,001
200615,1250.57%17,844
200715,8610.58%18,194
200817,8330.60%19,700
2009[5] 17,7820.57% 19,714
2010 18,724 0.52% 20,423
FY2011 [7] 18,448 0.51% 17,833
FY2012 [8] 17,770 0.50% 17,471
FY2013 [9] 16,865 0.49% 17,219
FY2014 [10] 17,647 0.50% 17,647
2015 18,010[11]
2016 (Final 2016 Spending Bill) 19,300
2017 (projected) 18,807 [10]
2018 (projected) 19,089 [10]
2019 (projected) 19,375 [10]
2020 (projected) 19,666 [10]

Notes for table: Sources for a part of these data: U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (needs proper citation-link, numbers here differ from NASA Pocket Statistics),
Air Force Association's Air Force Magazine 2007 Space Almanac
Secondary references: [1] [2] [3]Template:Full citation needed

NASA employmentEdit

Year Total NASA
(In-House)
Employees
Contractor
(Out-of-house)
Employees
#  % #  %
1959 Unknown 9,235
1960 46,700 ~13,500 (#6: 10,232) ~29% ~33,200 ~71%
1961 75,000 ~17,300 (#6: 17,471) ~23% ~57,800 ~77%
1962 139,200 ~22,300 (#6: 23,686) ~16% ~117,000 ~84%
1963 284,300 ~37,000 (#6: 29,934) ~13% ~247,300 ~87%
1964 379,600 ~38,000 (#6: 32,499) ~10% ~341,600 ~90%
1965 411,000 Peak ~41,100 (#6: 34,049) ~10% ~369,900 ~90%
1966 396,000 ~31,700 (#6: 35,708) ~8% ~364,300 ~92%
1967 309,100 ~37,100 (#6: 35,860) ~12% ~272,000 ~88%
1968 246,200 ~29,500 (#6: 34,641) ~12% ~216,700 ~88%
1969 ~218,000 34,197 ~16% ~180,000 ~84%
1970 32,779
1971 30,678
1972 28,501
1973 26,855
1974 26,068
1975 25,683
1976 25,482
1977 24,241
1978 23,850
1979 43,312 23,360 ~54% 19,952 ~46%
1980 43,764 22,470 ~51% 20,294 ~49%
1981 44,436 22,736 ~51% 21,700 ~49%
1982 Lowest 42,399 22,310 ~53% 20,089 ~47%
1983 43,196 22,534 ~52% 20,662 ~48%
1984 44,735 21,870 ~49% 22,865 ~51%
1985 46,784 22,316 ~48% 21,423 ~52%

Year Total NASA
(In-House)
Employees
Contractor
(Out-of-house)
Employees
#  % #  %
1986 45,647 21,960 ~48% 23,687 ~52%
1987 44,379 22,646 ~51% 21,733 ~49%
1988 52,224 22,823 ~44% 29,401 ~56%
1989 22,893
1990 24,566
1991 25,741
1992 25,421
1993 24,731 (#6: 25,062)
1994 24,265 (#6: 23,097)
1995 23,075 (#6: 20,563)
1996 19,693
1997 21,508
1998 20,238
1999 19,272
2000 18,981
2001 18,872
2002 19,073
2003 18,999
2004 19,097
2005 19,388
2006 18,737
2007 18,527
2008 18,520
2009 18,567
2010 18,618
2011 18,744
2012 ~79,000 ~19,000 ~24% ~60,000 ~76%

Reference:

1. Years 1960-1968[12][13]

2. Years 1969-1978[14]

3. Years 1979-1988[15]

4. CS, Years 1993-1995[16][17]

5. Year 2012[18]

6. CS, Year 1959-1968, 1989-1996, NASA Pocket Stats: http://history.nasa.gov/pocketstats/sect%20D/CS%20Trend.pdf

7. CS, Year 1993-2011, Workforce Information Cubes: https://wicn.nssc.nasa.gov

8. Contractors, 1969: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4102/ch5.htm

Cost of Apollo programEdit

File:NASA budget linegraph BH.PNG

NASA's budget peaked in 1964-66, when it consumed roughly 4% of federal spending. The agency was building up to the first moon landing; the Apollo program involved more than 34,000 NASA employees and 375,000 employees of industrial and university contractors.[citation needed]

In March 1966, NASA officials told Congress that the 1959-72 "run-out cost" of the Apollo program would be an estimated $22.718 billion. The total cost turned out to be between $20 and $25.4 billion in 1969 dollars (about $136 billion in 2007 dollars).[citation needed]

The costs of the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rockets came to about $83 billion in 2005 dollars. Apollo spacecraft cost $28 billion, including the Command/Service Module, $17 billion; Lunar Module, $11 billion; and launch vehicles (Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn V cost about $46 billion in 2005 dollars).[citation needed]

Economic impact of NASA fundingEdit

Question book-new

The factual accuracy of this article may be compromised due to out-of-date information

A November 1971 study of NASA released by MRIGlobal (formerly Midwest Research Institute) of Kansas City, Missouri ("Technological Progress and Commercialization of Communications Satellites." In: "Economic Impact of Stimulated Technological Activity") concluded that "the $25 billion in 1958 dollars spent on civilian space R & D during the 1958-1969 period has returned $52 billion through 1971 -- and will continue to produce pay offs through 1987, at which time the total pay off will have been $181 billion. The discounted rate of return for this investment will have been 33 percent."

NASA dollars

A map from NASA's web site illustrating its economic impact on the U.S. states (as of FY2003)

A 1992 commentary in the British science journal Nature reported:[19]

"The economic benefits of NASA's programs are greater than generally realized. The main beneficiaries (the American public) may not even realize the source of their good fortune. . ."

Other statistics on NASA's economic impact may be found in the 1976 Chase Econometrics Associates, Inc. reports[20] and backed by the 1989 Chapman Research report, which examined 259 non-space applications of NASA technology during an eight-year period (1976–1984) and found more than:

  • $21.6 billion in sales and benefits
  • 352,000 (mostly skilled) jobs created or saved
  • $355 million in federal corporate income taxes

According to the "Nature" commentary, these 259 applications represent ". . .only 1% of an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 Space program spin-offs."

In 2014, the American Helicopter Society criticized NASA and the government for reducing the annual rotorcraft budget from $50 million in 2000 to $23 million in 2013, impacting commercial opportunities.[21]

Public perceptionEdit

The perceived national security threat posed by early Soviet leads in spaceflight drove NASA's budget to its peak, both in real inflation-adjusted dollars and in percentage of total federal budget (4.41% in 1966). But the U.S. victory in the Space Race — landing men on the Moon — erased the perceived threat, and NASA was unable to sustain political support for its vision of an even more ambitious Space Transportation System entailing reusable Earth-to-orbit shuttles, a permanent space station, lunar bases, and a manned mission to Mars. Only a scaled-back Space Shuttle was approved, and NASA's funding leveled off at just under 1% in 1976, then declined to 0.75% in 1986. After a brief increase to 1.01% in 1992, it declined to about 0.49% in 2013.

The American public, on average, believes NASA's budget has a much larger share of the federal budget than it actually does. A 1997 poll reported that Americans had an average estimate of 20% for NASA's share of the federal budget, far higher than the actual 0.5% to under 1% that has been maintained throughout the late '90s and first decade of the 2000s.[22] It is estimated that most Americans spent less than $9 on NASA through personal income tax in 2009.[23]

However, there has been a recent movement to communicate discrepancy between perception and reality of NASA's budget as well as lobbying to return the funding back to the 1970-1990 level. The United States Senate Science Committee met in March 2012 where astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that "Right now, NASA's annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to dream of tomorrow."[24][25] Inspired by Tyson's advocacy and remarks, the Penny4NASA campaign was initiated in 2012 by John Zeller and advocates the doubling of NASA's budget to one percent of the Federal Budget, or one "penny on the dollar."[26]

To help with public perception and to raise awareness regarding the widespread benefits of NASA-funded programs and technologies, NASA instituted the Spinoffs publication. This was a direct offshoot of the Technology Utilization Program Report, a "publication dedicated to informing the scientific community about available NASA technologies, and ongoing requests received for supporting information." according to the NASA Spinoff about page the technologies in these reports created interest in the technology transfer concept, its successes, and its use as a public awareness tool. The reports generated such keen interest by the public that NASA decided to make them into an attractive publication. Thus, the first four-color edition of Spinoff was published in 1976.[27]

Related legislationEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Budget Internet Information System". National Science Foundation. http://dellweb.bfa.nsf.gov/. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  2. "Federal Spending on Academic Research Continued Downward Trend in 2007". August 25, 2008. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5055/federal-spending-on-academic-research-continued-downward-trend-in-2007. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 % of total federal expenditures from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/feb/01/nasa-budgets-us-spending-space-travel
  4. 4.0 4.1 1999-2010 based on federal outlays from: Federal budget (United States)#Total outlays in recent budget submissions
  5. 2011 Budget Overview
  6. Berger, Brian (2011-04-13). "U.S. Budget Compromise Includes $18.5 Billion for NASA". Space.com. http://www.space.com/11374-nasa-budget-2011-congress-compromise.html. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  7. http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/632697main_NASA_FY13_Budget_Summary-508.pdf
  8. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/750614main_NASA_FY_2014_Budget_Estimates-508.pdf
  9. 2015 NASA Budget Estimates
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 2016 NASA Budget Estimates
  11. Template:Cite news
  12. NASA Historical Databook, 1958-1968, Volume I, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012v1, 1976, Page 10, http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4012v1.pdf
  13. For general discussion on Years 1960-1968, see Chapter 3 of NASA Historical Databook, 1958-1968, Volume I, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012v1, 1976
  14. SP-4012 NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK: VOLUME IV, NASA RESOURCES 1969-1978, Table 3-1 (Titled: Civilian and Military In-house Personnel (at end of fiscal year)), Link: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4012/vol4/t3.1.htm
  15. NASA Historical Data Books (SP-4012), Volume VI: NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs, and Resources, 1979-1988, Compiled by Judy A. Rumerman, 1999, Reference: Chapter 7: NASA Personnel, Table 7-1 (Titled: Total NASA Workforce (at end of fiscal year), Page 468 Link: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4012/vol6/cover6.html
  16. http://www.gao.gov/assets/230/223061.pdf
  17. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GAOREPORTS-NSIAD-96-176/html/GAOREPORTS-NSIAD-96-176.htm
  18. http://employeeorientation.nasa.gov/contractors/default.htm
  19. Template:Cite journal
  20. "The Economic Impact of NASA R&D Spending: Preliminary Executive Summary.", April 1975. Also: "Relative Impact of NASA Expenditure on the Economy.", March 18, 1975
  21. Hirschberg, Mike. "Investing in Tomorrow’s Civil Rotorcraft" American Helicopter Society, July–August 2014. Accessed: 7 October 2014. Archived on 7 October 2014
  22. Launius, Roger D.. "Public opinion polls and perceptions of US human spaceflight". Division of Space History, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. http://si.academia.edu/RogerLaunius/Papers/93299/_Public_Opinion_Polls_and_Perceptions_of_US_Human_Spaceflight_. 
  23. "Personal Income Tax Paid To NASA In 2009 By Income Level". NASACost.com. http://nasacost.com/. 
  24. "Past, Present, and Future of NASA - U.S. Senate Testimony". Hayden Planetarium. 7 Mar 2012. http://www.haydenplanetarium.org/tyson/read/2012/03/07/past-present-and-future-of-nasa-us-senate-testimony. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012. 
  25. "Past, Present, and Future of NASA - U.S. Senate Testimony (Video)". Hayden Planetarium. 7 Mar 2012. http://www.haydenplanetarium.org/tyson/watch/2012/03/07/past-present-and-future-of-nasa-us-senate-testimony-video. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012. 
  26. "Why We Fight - Penny4NASA". Penny4NASA. http://www.penny4nasa.org/why-we-fight/. Retrieved 30 Nov 2012. 
  27. "About Spinoff". NASA. No date given. http://spinoff.nasa.gov/spinhist.html. Retrieved 26 Nov 2014. 
  28. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005, PL 109-155, US Government, December 30, 2005.
  29. "H.R. 4412 - Summary". United States Congress. http://beta.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/4412. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
</dl>

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.